A root canal treatment is the removal of the tooth's pulp, a small, thread-like tissue in the center of the tooth. Once the damaged, diseased or dead pulp is removed, the remaining space is cleaned, shaped and filled. This procedure seals off the root canal. Years ago, teeth with diseased or injured pulps were removed. Today, root canal treatment saves many teeth that would otherwise need to be removed.
What are the causes of pulp damage?
The most common causes of pulp damage or death are:
A cracked tooth
A deep cavity
An injury to a tooth, such as a severe knock to the tooth, either recent or in the past
Why do patients need a root canal treatment?
Once the pulp is infected or dead, if left untreated, pus can build up at the root tip in the jawbone, forming an abscess. An abscess can destroy the bone surrounding the tooth and cause pain
How is a root canal done?
Root canal treatment consists of several steps that take place over several office visits, depending on the situation. Typical root canal treatments include the following steps:
First, an opening is made through the back of a front tooth or through the chewing surface of a molar or pre-molar.
After the diseased pulp is removed (a pulpectomy), the pulp chamber and root canals are cleaned, enlarged and shaped in preparation for being filled.
A tapered, rubbery material called gutta-percha is inserted into each of the canals and is often sealed into place with cement. Sometimes a metal or plastic rod is placed in the canal for structural support.
If more than one visit is needed, a temporary filling is placed in the crown opening to protect the tooth between dental visits.
In the final step, a crown is usually placed over the tooth to restore its natural shape and appearance. If the tooth is very broken down, a post may be required to build it up prior to placing a crown.
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How long will restored teeth last?
Your treated and restored tooth or teeth can last a lifetime with proper care. Because tooth decay can still occur in root canal treated teeth, good oral hygiene and regular dental exams are necessary to prevent further problems.
However, as there is no longer a pulp keeping the tooth alive, root-treated teeth can become brittle and are more prone to fracture. This is an important consideration when deciding whether to crown or fill a tooth after root canal treatment.
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